Another significant factor in the end of the Cold War was the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979. The Soviet Union would pay a growing cost in lives and money over the next decade. America supported the Afghan resistance, often called "Mujahideen," or freedom fighters. One of the most important weapons supplied by the US was the Stinger anti-aircraft missile, which downed many Soviet aircraft and prevented the Soviets from maximizing their air superiority.
Because of the damage to the Soviet Union's reputation and resources, Afghanistan has been called the "Soviet Union's Vietnam," or the "Bear Trap," (after the bear symbol of the USSR).
[Ironically, some Islamist extremists who opposed the Soviets during the Cold War and were on the same side as the US, including Osama Bin Laden, later joined al-Qaeda and participated in terrorist attacks against America and Western interests. The US itself invaded Afghanistan after 9/11.]